Gazetteer References & Data Sources
Database & Map Update Cycles
- The Physical, Cultural, and Historic Features geographic data is updated 6 times per year. Last update: August 8, 2023.
- The ZIP Code database and ZIP Code maps are each updated 4 times per year. The database was last updated on October 1, 2023 and the maps were last updated on November 3, 2023.
- The School Attendance Zone Maps are updated 4 times per year. Last update: September 29, 2023.
- The Demographic Data is updated annually. Last update: July 1, 2023.
Source of Geographic Data
The geographic data for physical, cultural, and historic features is provided by the US Geological Survey (USGS) via The National Map Data Delivery application.
Source of Demographic Data
The annual census demographic estimates and 5-year forecasts are based upon data produced by Esri Demographics. Their estimates and forecasts use the latest US Census Bureau annual American Community Survey (ACS) as a starting point. They then combine additional data from multiple sources including residential postal delivery counts from the USPS, a time series of county-to-county migration patterns from the IRS, building permits, housing starts and local data sources that tested well against the most recent census. For more detailed information: Methodology Statement: 2023/2028 Esri Updated Demographics.
Source of School Profile Information
The primary data source for our school profiles is the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) at the US Department of Education.
Source of Maps, Map Data, and Boundaries
- The base maps, terrain maps, and satellite views are produced by HERE. They also provide the driving directions.
- The defined boundaries for neighborhoods, incorporated places, Census Designated Places, counties and county subdivisions that overlay the maps are derived on data provided by Esri.
- Both the School Attendance Zone Maps and ZIP Code Maps are based on data provided by Precisely. Precisely is a software company specializing in data integrity tools and location intelligence offerings. Their customers include 90 of the Fortune 100 largest U.S. corporations.
- The Congressional District Maps are based on data provided by the U.S. Census Bureau.
Geocoding and Nearby Places
- Both Forward and Reverse geocoding services are provided by HERE. Forward geocoding converts an address into geographic coordinates. Conversely, Reverse geocoding finds the nearest address for a specific geographic point.
- The Features list in each Community Profile are the physical and cultural features located within 18 miles of the primary coordinates for the community.